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Full text of "Panasonic JR-100U Operating Instructions (1981)(Matsushita Electric Trading)"

Operating 
Instructions 



Personal Computer 

JR-100U 




Panasonic 



CautFOn 

This personal computer is made of sturdy materials, which provide adequate protectf[:»n 
under normal use. There k, however, a limit to the amount of twisting, bending and drop 
ping tills unit can withstand. Reasonable care is required to protect the electr[cpart!i such as 
LSIs, iCs, etc. and other components. 

Important Don'ts 

• Do not use or place this personal computer in areas ot high or low temperature, high 
humidit/, direct sunlight, or a dusty atmosphere for a long time. Excessive exposure 
to these conditions could result In poor performance, damaga to the cabinet, or func- 
tional failure of the LSI or other components . 

Also, avofd using the personal computer near audio equipment since interlerence may 
result 

• Do not shock or expose to water since this will adversely affect perfarmance. 

• Do not open the cabinet. 

Jf the personal computer is defective, please contact the nearest Panasonic Service 
Center. 

• Do not use thinner, benfire or alcohol to clean the personal computer. 

Use a silicone rrsated doth, or a cloth dampened with gentle cleaning liquid That will 
not damage the personal computer, 
•f Do not use any AC adaptors other than the optional designated Panasonic AC adaptor 
which is specially designed for u% with this personal computer. 



CONTENTS 
CHAPTER 1 "GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF HAFIDWARE" 

page 

Section 1 — Sv^t^i^ Configuration and Functtonaf Specifications — 4 

1 .1 System Configuration 5 

1.2 Functional Specifications 6 

Section 2 — Merriorv Mapping — , . . , , . - 6 

2.1 Arrangement o' Memory 6 

2.2 Application of Machine Language 7 

2.3 Access xo video RAivi 7 

Section 3 - Chflrader Code Tsbls - B 

Saclion 4 - Kevl>oa»** - ^^ 

CHAPTER 2 "OPERATION OF PANASONIC PERSONAL COMPUTER JR-100U" 

Section 1 — Outer Appearance and Parts Name — 11 

Section 2 — Connentiom - ..,.....,,,,. 12 

2.1 Display 12 

2.2 CaaseneTape Recorder , 14 

Section 3 - Keyboard Operatioa — - 15 

3.1 Character Mode 15 

3.2 Graphic Mode 15 

3.3 Function Key Wode . , 15 

3.4 Screen Editor 16 

SHction d — Dpajation of CaKstte Tape Recorder - 17 

4.1 Connection - - -- 17 

4.2 SAVE iStore) Program 17 

4.3 LOAD Program 18 

4.4 VERIFY 19 

4.5 MSAVE. MLOAD 19 

4.6 Notes 19 

Section 5 - Other Operatfons — 20 

5.1 Control of Bjzzer Sound 20 

5.2 Other Controls 2C 

Soctiori 6 — TroublBsliQoting - .,,,...,..,. Zl 



CHAPTER 3 "SPECIFlCATiONS OF BASIC" 

page 

Section 1 - General Description of Grammar of BASIC - 22 

1 .1 Operating Mode 22 

1 .2 Line Format and Line PJumber 23 

1 .3 Constants 23 

1.4 Variables 23 

1 .5 Expression and Operations - 24 

1.6 Arrav Declaration and Element Reference .,,..,,... 23 

1.7 Display Elements and Prifil Elements - 28 

IS User's Definition Characters 29 

Seclit»n 2 — BASIC Commands and Sentences - , 29 

2.1 AUTO 39 

2.2 BEEP 29 

2.3 CLEAR 3D 

2.4 CLS 30 

2.5 CONT 30 

2.6 DATA -■ 30 

2.7 DIM 31 

2.8 trJD 31 

Z9 FIND 32 

2.10 FOR ' 'NEXT 32 

2.11 GOSUB- RETURN/RET 33 

2.12 GOTO 33 

2.13 HCQPY 34 

2.14 IF- ■■ THEM 34 

2.15 INPUT 35 

2.16 LET 35 

2.17 LIST 36 

2-18 LLIST 36 

2.19 LOAD 36 

2.20 LOCATE 37 

2.21 LPRINT 37 

3.32 MLOAD 37 

2.23 MSAVE 38 

2.24 NEW 38 



2.25 OPTION 38 

2.26 PICK 39 

2.27 POKE 39 

2.28 PRIMT ,. , 39 

2.29 READ 41 

2.30 REM 41 

2.31 RESTOftE 42 

2.32 RUN 42 

2.33 SAVE ,..42 

2.34 STOP 43 

2.35 VERIFY 43 

Seciion 3 - BASIC Functions - 44 

3.T ABS 44 

3.2 ASC 44 

3.3 CHRS 44 

3.4 FRE 45 

3.5 FLD 45 

3.6 HEXS 45 

3.7 HPOS, VPOS 45 

3.B LEFTS 46 

3.9 LEN 46 

3.10 MIDS 46 

3.11 MOD 46 

3J2 PEEK 47 

3-13 RIGHTS 47 

3.14 RND 47 

3.16 SGN 46 

3.16 SPC 48 

3.17 TAB 48 

3.18 USR 49 

3.19 VAL 49 

Section 4 — Error Meuaue — 60 

(Appendix) 

Mu&ic Program , 52 

ASCII Code Table 64 

Design Chart 65 



CHAPTER 7 "GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF HARDWARE" 

Section 1 - S/stem Cor>tigiiralion and Functional SpecificBtion; - 

1 .1 System Configurdtion 

Panasonic personal cornpuiar JR-IOOU has 3 basic conligu ration in which a display monitor 

(induding a family TV monitoT] and cassette tape recorder are utilised as the display and 

Efie memory, respectively; and variojs optional configurations are also provided in which 

various I/O devices incfuding a printer are connected through a printer imerface to bus 

connectors. 



JR-IOOU Personal Cornpulsr 
I -- 



AC Power Souice 



Gdaic SyatemT 
Expansion Syitpm I 




Prlnier 



- U^e either or^e, 



Other I/O Unit 



A block diagram otthepersofial computer JR-IOOU is sh&wn below. 





CF'U 
MM 800 










1 




RAM 


- 




\ 


-^ ^ 

t 1 












ROM 

aKBvi? 


■ , 
















Video RAM 
IK BytG 








\ 








1 


/ ^ 






y — 




[ 


1 





RF 
Modulate 


ir 

— 1 


Display 


1 


i 




IrrarfacB 




1 
1 
1 








k-— 




■--^ _ . 




"^ — 1. 


Kev^io^^ 


^ 


(ayboaril 


Inter face 


I 


— u 



Cd^aette 
Inter-face 



Interface 



Expon^ian Gu9 
Connector 



■f^—OTV Recaivff 



ODisDiay WonitOf 



<] 



Dui'-v\ 



-O MIC (Tape Rscord&r) 



^MONITOR (Tape Femrdef} 



1.2 Functional Specif ication& 

(1) Uicroproc»sor 

• Model MNieOD {equivalent to 6802] 

• ClocK frequencv; 690 kHi 

• System reset function 

(2) Mflmorv 

• ROM: BK bvtes 

• RAM: 16K bytes 

• Video PAM. 1Kbyte 

The capacity o^ the memory may be optionally increaaed by 32K byte? through bus 
connectors. 



(3) Keyboard 

• System ; 

• Keys; 

(4} Diiplav tnterfaca 

• Screen size: 

• Characters: 



Software scanning 

6-shifl key mode with 45 keys, ISHiFTI key and \CTRl\ l^ey 



24 Nnes X 32 characters with monochrome display monitor 
64 characters with 6x7 dot matrix 
64 semi-graphic characters with S « 8 dot matrix 
Characters and symbols specified by users: 

32 characters with 8 x S dot matrix 



-5- 



• Attribute: 

* Composite video signal: 
(G) Cassette interface 

■ System: 

■ Baud raw: 



inverted display tunciion 

with 75 uhms, 1 V p-p or wilh RF tllpflop converter 



FSK system 1,200 Hz (space} and 2,^00 Hz (mark) 
600 Bauds 
(6J AC adaptor? (JR-A03, JR-A04 and JR-AO&, AC 110V, 120V and 220V, rospoctwaly J 

• Input voltage: AC 110 V, 120 V or 220 V +10%, 50/60 Hz 

• Output voltage; DC 17 V, 7.B V and -3 V 

• Power consurnptioci: 12.5 W 
(7) R F Modulator (JR-ROB) 

■ For switching TV channel 3 or 4 

Section Z — Memory Mapping — 

2.1 Arrangemani of Meitiory 

The memories of the personal computer J R-IOOU area ROM of 8K bytes for storing control 
program! o1 a BASIC interpreter, a screen editor, a character pattern and I/O devices; 
a RAM of t6K byt&s for storing user's programs; and a video RAM of IK bytes for refresh- 
ing a CRT. The configuration of The memory, the cassette magnetic tape, and I/O porta of 
the keyboard is shown below: 

SDOOO 



'' 



-* 



y 



soooo 




$4000 


RAM Part 16 KB 


EitpEn^ion Memoiy 


Scooo 


1 32KB 




SEooa 


I/O Part 


ROW Part 


SFFFF 


e KB 



^ 



^ 



\ 



s 



^ 

^ 


BASIC liitBf|jivier 
Op«ratinq Part 




Stack Pan 


^ J 


BASIC Program 
Pa*r 






_^ 1-^ 


tJser'&deTmiriQr 
Characters 




Video RAM of CRT 




Aualllarv 




I/O Porl5 1or 
Cas^cte/ Key board 




I/O Porl^ for 
fripartiion 




Auvlliarv 



SOIOO 

so24e 

$3FFF 
SCOOO 
$C100 

SC40O 

scsoo 
sccoo 

soooo 
(DFFF 



RAM unit (16 KbytesJ 

Thi? RAM is used for storing BASIC programs and the operating area for the BASrC 

interpreter. Programs for machiriE language are stored in an arEa iArhich doe* not cor- 



-6 



responds to the BASIC programs. 

• Optional memory unit (32 Kbytes) 

An external memory lo be added is mapped in this area through bus connectors. 

• I/O Ports (a Kbytes) 

These I/O pons are used for stQring data in or retrieving data from the cassette mag- 
netic tape by keyboard operattor with the CRT display. 

• ROM jnit (3 Kbytes) 

This ROM stores control programs of the BASIC intarpreter, the screen editor, the 
character pattern and the I/O de\*ices. 

• Video FtAM unit 

The display position on the screen of the CRT display corrcaponds to a rnemory 
addrflE£ in orka-tQ-sne correeponclancG. 

2.Z Application o1 Machine Language 

The fDllowing pnj[:edure i&nidde when machine l^n^udye is used ivJLh BA5IC. 
A BASIC program is wrirten in addresses after address S0246. Bits for varlablea are provided 
for the BASIC program The machine language i; written after this variable area to address 
S3FFF. 

When ihe BASIC program area extends to, for example, address S2FFF, the machine lan- 
guage 15 written In addresses $12 and $13. In the example described above, the following 
operation is required. 

POKE $12,S2F 

POKE $I3,SFF 
When power is supplied, ihE data of address £3FFF is automatically written in ^dres^s 
Sl2andS13. 



2.3 Access to Video RAM 

Data of 1 byte (POKE) h written in a predetermined address of the video RAM to write 
a character at any position on tha CRT screen. The position on the screen corresponds to 
thepredeierniined address of the ^ideo RAMasfollov\'S^ 

I Digit 31 



Line 

22 
23 



CTOO 


ClOl 1 


CllF 


Clio 


C12I 


1 


C13F 






Eyample: 1? Digits 
^ Linei CI3C 




C3C0 


C3C1 




C30F 


'C3E0 


C3E1 




C3FF 



_7^ 



Thfl upper four digits of a character code which iswrillen in Ihe memory differ from thai of 
an ASCI I code. A ROM code in a character code table to be showr^ iri the next seciion i« 
used, for example, when letter "A" is displayed at the 12th digit of the fourth line, the 
fallowing procedure is required. 

POKE £C18C, S31 
The same results are obtained when the following procedure is performed. 

10 LOCATE 4,12 

20 PRINT CWR$i$41) 

Section 3 - Charactar Code Table - 

One character is written with one byta {B bits). The character code tabfe ia defined as the 
table in which characters are mapped with to 35& biti f£00 fnfiFF). 



IT 



4 bjilllf Jip^BJ pDE'UDn 



Character Code Tabis 



I 



a 
3 



\ 







1 


2 


3 


4 


5 6 7 


& 


a 


A e 


c|. 


E 


If 


i 









1 


2 


3 

p; , 


4'5 






1 


s 




7' 







SPl 





i^ 




1 




1 

4 


1 


A 


Q 


1 


4 


— 1 
1 






- - 




s 


□ 


2 




TT 


2 


B 


R 




» 


!J 








kfl 


E 


3 






^ 


3 


C 


S 






♦ 


U 








1 


B 


C 


4 






$ 


4 
5 


D 

B 


T 
U 




— - 


* 


y 










"r 


■ 


5 






% 


A 


a! 






1 
1 


6 






& 


B F 


V 






•- 


m 








— 1 
1 


9 


a 


7 






"< 


7iG 


w 






-i 


■ 










S 


D 


8 




1 

X 






T 


\B 










m 


EI 


S 






) 


9 


1 


Y 






-* 


a] 








1 


ffl 


m 


A 






* 


M 


J 


z 




1 


i 


[E 








1 


■ 


H 


B 






H- 




K 


C 






© 


R 










iB 


[5 


C 




1 


1 


< 


L 


¥ 






■ 


u 










H 


• 









— 





W 


:i 






E 


□ 






1 


fi 


h 


E 






■ 


> 


N 


/^ 






■ 


s 











'a 


F 






/I 


? 





_ 






\A 


[^ 




1 


[^ 


•^1 



^ ASCI I Code 
^ Video RAM 



Notn; {SP): Sp»ce kpy 

Inverted dispTay is performed for the characters in the character code table. However, 
an inverted character and a character or symbol Bpecified by the user cannot be simulta- 
neously displayed on the screen. 

The pattern of the characters in the character code table car>hOt be changed since the 
permanent program forthe characters is stored in the ROM. The user may create special 



-8- 



characters or symbols with a desired pattern in units o1 an 8 x 8 164 dots) dot matrix 
Si needed. 

User's Definition Character Code Table 



■>*^^^ upper 


2 


3 


Lower ^v 
4bhti \. 


cfia racier 


tAemory atidtB^^ 


Designation 
chiiacler 


MemorvartdraH 





{SPJ 


$C000 - SC007 





$ca80 - SC087 


1 


1 


SC008 - 3C0OF 


1 

1 


$C0a8 - SC08F 


2 


•• 


SC0IO-5C017 


2 


$C090 - $C097 


3 


# 


SCOTS -3C01F 


3 


$C09B - $C09F 


4 


S 


tcr\70 - <Kcn'j7 


d 


finnan -srnA? 


5 


% 


$C02S - 3C02F 


B 


SCOAB - SCOAF 


6 


a 1 


$C030 - aC037 


6 SCOBO - SC0B7 


7 


T 


$C038 - $C03F 


7 


SC0B8 - SCOBF 


a 


( 


$C040 - SC047 


8 


$COC0 - SC0C7 


9 


) 


$C048 - SC(MF 


9 


$CX8 ' SCOCF 


A 


t 


$C050 - SC057 


ri 


$COD0 - SC0D7 


B 


+ 


$G05B - $C05F 


i 


SC0D8 - SCODF 


c 


1 


$C:060 - $C067 


< 


SCOEQ - 3C0&7 


D 


— 


$C068 - $C06F 


= 


$C0E8 - 3C0EF 


E 


, 


$C070 - SCO 77 


> 


SCOFO - 3C0F7 


F 


/ 


SC07e - SC07F 


? 


$COFe - SCOFF 



Dfrsignatian characier; a charactar designated by the umt, corresponding to a pdlUm tn oFdceot ar? pven 
character paltcri \n Ihe proqrflm. 

Note (SP) Space key 

Since the characters or symbols are crested by the user, keys which correspond to the 
created chaieclers or symbols are not preseni on the keyboard. Each of the keys for special 
characiars or symbols created by the user for practical convflnierca in order to perform 
programming, A character pattern specified by the user is written in the corresponding 
memory address. When this pattern is used in programming, a special character which 
corresponds to the character pallern specified by ihe user is used. 
(Refer to 4.2 of "BASIC Programming Guide for JR-100U"} 



-9- 



Section 4 — Keyboard - 



Ic] 



2U 



33 



*1 

4h 






7& 



A IF 



- J 






ft^ 



""•*" 



QJ 



wi: 



j:"|] EeU tlJ 



.X". 



ua 



Ti 







3 



JVU 



: rj 



DB 



i-.H lC« Ih3 



i-L 



IM 



■LP! 




!"- 



ahHri I 



ZJI 



ea, 




_ri^ 
Ml 



ICT 



jj £a, 



There are 45 keys on ihe keyboard. Most of the keys can be used in fivemay$ in accordance 
with the graphic rrtode, the character mode, ihc function mode and the [SHIFT! key^ 
Be sure to prss the key firmly. 




CHAPTER 2 "OPERATION OF PANASONIC PERSONAL COMPUTER JR-IOOU' 



Sectiop 1 - Outer Appflarance and Paris Nam* - 



wrr 
Fimn Jl CntTuuiK 




-Povifer Lamp 
-Relum Key 



-ipace K&v 



V 



>! irib u u J Dd J J a jj IT 



Conn*cl to MIC 

Terminal of 
Tape Recortl&r 

Corifiect ta MONITOR 

Terminal of 
Tapn Reco refer 



AC Adaptor 
Terrmnfll 



jLiujLiciuiianDJ 



^ilJ, 



PovrHrTerrriirial 
of RF Modulalor 



Display Monitor 
Terminal 



insert the AC Adaptor out out 
plug into ihe AC Adaptor 
Wrminal prcperly. Fit thf 
r^otch an the circiimtflrflnca 
of the plus with the propc- 
lion on ihe inner surface of 
the tHrminal. /-'—-'■^^-.r^. 




Natch 



AC Adaptor 
Ojtpiif Plug 



AC Ad dptor 




-n - 



Section 2 — Cortnoctiora — 



2.1 Display 

(1 ) For the display monJtct of the JR lOOU 

Use 3 monochrome displav monitor iPanasonic TR'120lVll ) to obtain clear images on the 

screen. 



e/WDiapfay 

Monitor {TR-120M1) ^ 



To Video Input Tpnniriel 
of Djspljiy Uonilor 



Displsy 
Monilor 
Tflrmina 




Conneciion Cord for 
BAiV Display Monitor 



AC Adaptai 




AC Adaplor 
Terminal 



Rear Side 



g 



JL 



I 



AC Adaptor 



Ditpjav 
Moniiur 




Qt AC Power Source 



(Z) ForafamilyTV 

Uae the RF Modulator (JRR05; optional) to switch channel 3 or 4 which does not corre- 
spond to a TV station. Set the TV channel to the channel of the RF modulator. Adjust the 
fir^e tuning knob to obtain clear images nn the screen. 

Refer to The Operating Inst ruction? attached to theRFmodiflator for optimum app fie at ions, 
(a) For a coaKiaJ antenna terminal (75 ohms) used for color monitor, etc. 




Anienna 
TeiminaUTSTlJ 



Raar Side 



^^3^ 



RF Moduldlor 
JR-R05 



a 



j^ 



1 



m 



/ \ 

Display RF Moduldlar 
AC Adaptor M^niior Power Source 



/ 



RF Mcdulator 
Power Terminal 




AC Ariaptor 



Terininal 








AC Adaptor 
Tflrminal 



AC Po^ver Source 



ir ihe screen image blurs, u$t pie op- 
tHjnal resstaniw corverTar lo convarl 
r«iibiani# irwn 3C0 olimt lo 7b ohmj 
or (rotn 75 ohnu lo 300 uhmi, at 
sho'ivr> in l»rn ftil 



-12- 



(b) For a balancing antenna terminal (30Oohms) used for g pnriable TV, aic. 

Remove the coaxial cojinecfor of the RF output terminal of the RF modulator and 
attach optional electric resistance converter lo convert the resistance from 30O 
ohms to 75 ohms, Refer to the Operalina Instnictions of the RF Modulator fi>r 
optimum applications. 



AC Power 
Source 




To Amemia 

Terminal (3O0S1] 



Optinna 

Resistance 

ConvertBT 

Oisplav Monitor 
Termina 



RF Modulator 
JR-R05 



h^ Mutluiaior 

Powpr Termlna 





AC Adaptdr 
AC Adaptor 






AC Power Source 



oaaaaooc, poo 

C3^ OULJDUUUD 



(c) For a TV having video input terminals 

Connect the fords in the same manner as in the case in which the special display 
monitor is jsed. Further. reTer to the Operating Instructions for the TV receiver 
for optimum applications. 



fe 



Rear Side 



Owneclion corj for 

Dlsplflv Monilor 
Dlipljy Monitor 

Terrninal 



i- 



AC 

Pawar 
Source 



; 



AC Adaptor 



t 

Display 

Monitor 



To ^idoD Input TsrminBl of 
Di^fay kflonitor 

AC AOaptO' 

Tarminal\ I" 





AC Adflprnr 



AC Poviei SourcH 



[Note] Details of the characters displayed on the screen may he unclear or blurred yvhen a 
color monitor is used, depending f>r> the model of the monitor. Perform fine adjustment on 
the TV receiver side. A monochrome monitor is preferred as the display for the personal 
computer JR10OU. 



-T3- 



2.2 Ca&aetie Tape Recorder 



Rear Side 



S 



C.i£ 



To Mornlor To Microphone 




Connect ihe 

bfack cord 

CO Ihe 

monitor 

terminal 



Conneci 

Slack ittJtord 
I lo dig 

micrcphorte 
lermina 




Use the attached recording cable and connect the red plug to the microphone terminal and 
ihe black pfug to The monitor terminal. 

Thus, the main unit is connected to the tape recorder, fn some cassette tape recorders, the 
monitor terminal may be indicdied as Ihe external speaker, Relerio the instructior- manual 
of your tape rei:orderfor proper operation. 



To Inipro^e the Pcrfcrmance of JR-100U 
Remav» thv cow for ihe ejiternal bus terminals on tne 

back otThe mam unit of JR-iOOU and connect e?;pand- 





-14 



Section 3 - Keyboa'd Operations - 

3.1 Character Mode 

• The character mode is the basic mode when power is supplied. 

• press a key to input the character marked jin white) un :he left bottom of the key top. 

• SimullantfDuslv press the JSHIFT] k&y and a character key to input the symbol marked 
(in "AihiteJ on the upper right of the key top. 

3.2 Graphic Mode 

• Press the (El key which is maritad LGRAPHj wh i le the ICTRLl key i^ continuously 

pressed to convert to the graphic mode. 

• Press a kay to Input the symbol marked (in green) on the right bottom of the key Top. 
■ Press the key marked a^ FGR apH~I while the 1 CTH l1 key is continuously pressed lo 

input a sentence of the BASIC language which is generally displayed on the upper 

section of the key. 

3.3 Function Key Mode 

• Press a key while the LCTRL] key is continuously presssd to input a sentence of the 
BASIC language which is generally displayed on the upper section of the key. 

The following ooerations for the uppermost and lowermost lines are not displayed on the 
screen. 



Control Key 
Function Key 


Function 


NOME 


To move the cursor to the initial position of the uppermost line 


DELETE 


To delete the character abcwe Hie cursor and carry the following Unes 


RUBOUT 


To delete the character immediately before the current cursor posi- 
tion and move the cursor to the position immediatelv before the cur- 

L ' 

rent position 1 Use this function key for a typographical error.) 


-^-i f-> 


To move the cursor one apace in the direction shown by the arrows 
[U^e for correcting a program.} 


INSERT 


To insert a space above The cursor for each key in operation lUsB 
for inserting a sentence.) 



- 15- 



L INS 



CANCEL 



BREAK 



GRAPH 



HCOPY 



SPACE 



RETURN 



To insert a line space (Use for writing a direct command after pro- 
gram correction.) 



To cancel an input and move the cursor to the beginning of the line 



To halt all operations and set the computer in the READV mode 



To switch 10 the graphic mode. Press again to restore the character 
mode. 



To print out the display currentlv on the screen 



Tt> input one space 



To change lines when keved in at the end of the line, and to mput a 
direct command 



3.4 Screen Editor 

Programs and sentences displayed containing an error can be corrected on the screen. 

The functions described above may be utilised for this purpose. For example, "arrows" are 

used to move the cursor in a cj^irea direction to correct x\^e sentences. Correction on the 

wreen 15 performed by utilizing the DELETE, INSERT, and RUBOUT keys. When the 

IPETURrJJ key is pressed after correction on the screen, the corresponding program within 

the memory is corrected in the same rnanner as displayed on tho screen. The IRETUftPj] key 

may be pressed at any time regarriless of The cursor position on a given line. 

For deleting an arbitrary line, input the line number and press the IfiETUBNl key. For 

inserting a desired sentence between lines, input a hne numberso that the desired sentence 

is insened before the specified line; the Nne numbers wilf Rearranged in order again, During 

the period between completion of the STOP sentence [command) and execution of the 

CONT command, a direct command may be e>iecuted, but program correction cannot be 

performed. 

When a lonq orotiram is reviewed on the screen by executing the LIST command, the images 

on the screen are roiled up. However, a stationary image may be obtained by pressing a key 

to rev Jew the program step by step. 

Since the same type of errors tend to occur, use the FirJD function {refer to Chapters) to 

list the sutne type of sentences for convenience in correcting errors^ 



-16- 



Section 4 - Operation of Ca&sette Tape Recorder - 

4.1 Connection 

Commarcially available cassette tape recorders may be used as the display. 
Connect the red plug to the MIC terminal and the black plug to Uie MONITOR terminal to 
electrically couple the perwina! computer and the tape recorder. Use a cassette magnetic 
tape which has a short recording time for avoiding recording trouble. 

42 SAVE (Store) Program 

"SAVF" is 3" fiporstinn fnr rprnrHing 3 nrnoriirri rrpfltpd hv Vdu on the rscordino maonetic 

tape 

Reset the counter to "OOO". 

Change a line with the EIxSM) key or the ICTBLl andg] keys and lolfow the procedure 

as follows by utilizing the ICTRLI key. 

5AVE "ABC" 

where "ABC " is the program name. The program name is arbitrarilv selected within the 
range of 15 characters. 

Record the progfam in the tape recorder (press the red recording and play buttons). When 
a new bfank tape \s used, wait until the leader of the tape has been wound for about 3 
seconds- 
Press the EHuMl key. 
On the screen, the following instruction Js displayed: 

PUSH RECORD 

The following instruction is then displayed on the screen; 

WRITING ABC 

In this manner, the SAVE operation is initiated. The word "SAVE" i; displayed at the 
upper right corner of the screen. When the SAVE operation is completed, the following 
instruction isdisplayed: 

READY 



-17- 



Press Ihe slop button and rewind the tape to ihe beginning. 

Thus, the SAV£ operatjon i^ completed. Later on, check ^ith the VERIFY operation if 

The program h properly recorded. 

Increm^nl the counter by at laast one to "find a nonrecorded section on the magnetic tape 

when the another program is to be continuously recorded on the same magnetic tape, 

Mark counter reading and the program name lor later application. 



Set th« tape recordar in the recording mode before preying the iRETURNi key when 
the SAVE aperation li performed in order to avnid loss of the beginning of thd program, 

because writing is spontaneously initiated upon depression [>f the IRETuhmI key. 

4,3 LOAD Program 

LOAD is for placing the program iriio infernal storage in the personal computer, 

Match the counter number and the corresponding program to be loaded in the computer 

[the previous program can overlap the desired program). 

Change the image on the screen with the Iff E TU R n1 key or the ICTR Ll and [zj keys, dnd 

follow the procedure with the lCTR l\ key as folloy\^s: 

LOAD 'ABC' 

where "ABC" is the program name. Press the I ft E TU H ri] key. The following inBtruction it 

displayed. 

PUSH PLAY 
SEARCHING 

The ne)ii insiruciion is iher> displayed within a short period of time: 

LOADING ABC 

The word "LOAD " is displayed al the upper right corrwr on the screen. When the following 
instruction is displayed, 

BEADY 

prooram loading is completed. If The display is: 

SUM CHECK ERROR ! 
READY 

an error has occurred in the loading operation of the program. Turn down the volume level 
slightly and repeat the LOAD operation of the program to obtain an optimal volume level, 
If the magnetic tape is reproduced from the beginning and other prograins are recorded 



- ia- 



before the desired program onthismsgnetic tape, the following instfuction is displaved: 

SKIP! DEF 
Only the desired program is only searched. 

Alfernativelv, when the LOAD operation Is only specified without entering the program 
name as follows: 

LOAD 
the first program i^ loaded. 

When the LOAD operatiori of tlie program is cancelled, perforin the BREAK { [ctrLJ and 
fc] key) operation- 

4.4 VERIFY 

The VERIFY operation is performed in order lo check if The program fs properly recorded 
(SAVE) on the magnetic tape. In tlieiame manner as in ihe LOAD operation, input. 

VERIFY "ABC" 
When the VERIFY operation is cornpleted, the followjing instruction is displayed^ 

READY 
However, if the display is: 

VERIFY ERROR ! 
repeat the SAVE operation. During this operation, the program to be recorded again is 
retained in the memory. If vou load enother program v/ithout recording the program to be 
recorded, the latter program may be lost. 

4.5 MSAVE. MLOAD 

The SAVE and LOAD operations in the machine language and data are the same as those in 
the BASIC language. However, when VISAVE operation is performed, an address in which 
data ia stored must be specified. For example, when data between addresses S3000 end 
S3100 isitored with the MSAVE oparation, input: 

MSAVE "ABC", $3000. S3100 
where "ABC" is the file name. When data Is stored in the MLOAD operation, input: 

MLOAD "ABC" 
Other steps in the MSAVE and MLOAD operations are the same 3s in the LOAD and SAVE 
operations in the BASIC language. 

4.e Noti^ 

The LOAD operation may r>oi be praparly performed dcfponding or* the type of tape re- 
corder, euen if the fine adjustmerit of the volume control is performed, as described in 



- 19- 



section 4.3. ff ihis occurs, follow the procedure described below: 

ilj Insert the plug into the MIC terminaJ only to perform the SAVE operation. To the 
contrarVx insert lhe pTus into the MONITOR terminal when the LOAD operation is 
performed. Oeiach th«othar plug from the corresponding term InaL 

(2) Keep the easMite tape recorder away from the TV monitor. 

(3) Ad|ust the tone ft a model with a tone control is used. 



Section 5 — Oiher Opeiaiion& — 

5,1 Control of Buzzer Sound 

Buzzer sound may be controlled b/ Inputting data asfolLo^s: 



Operation 


Controf 


POKE 0, 


To eliminate buzier sound for each key-in operalmn, (except 
for af> error and tVie BEEP com mar d) 


POKE 0,1 


To generate bu«er sound tor each key in operation. 


POKE l,n 


To change tone of the buzzer sound. 

I^■ £00 - SFF or - 255 and SAA ^standard}; a high tone is 

generated vstien the value of n is small, whiie a low tone is 

generated when the value is large. 


BEEP 


To generate bu2zer sound tor about 0.6 second. 


BEEP 1 


To generate bu7zer sound. 


BEEP 

1 


To fllJmlnaie buzzer wund. 



5^ Other Controls 



Operation 


Control 


RESET 


To restore the status at the time of suppling power. 


INITF 


To in itia Hie The printer. 



^20^ 



Section G — TTOubleshooting — 



Symptom 


Cause 


Remedy 


An jmag« Is not displayed 


Power is not supplied. 


Check the powiv $ojrce 


on the screen. 




and the power switch. 


Connections ere not com- 


Refer to section 2 of 




plete. 


chapter 2, connect the 
cords properly arid insert 
the power plug into the 
AC power source. 


A proper cnannei is not 


AOlust tne TV cnannei 




set 


to that of fiF modu- 
lator. 


An Image i; disturbed. 


The TV receiver is not 


Adjust tuning, vertical 




^d justed properly. 


sync, and hortzont^l sync. 


Characters are displayed 


1 

The computer i; rot pro- 


Turn off the power switch 


at random. 


perly initialized. 


and turn it on agdin. 


The BREAK function is 


The ccmpuier cannot be 


Turn oft the power 


not initiated. 


cctntrolled jAn erroneous 


switch. Check the pro- 




program is load**d). 


gram and turn on the 
power switch again. 


The SAVE LOAD func- 


The tape recorder is erro- 


• Refer to section 4 of 


tion cannot be Initiated. 


neously Operated. 


chapter 2 and perform 
proper operations. 

•Adjust the level at the 
time of loading. 

■ In 5ome tape recorders. 
insert the plugs irito the 
MICandiVlONITOH ter- 
minals separately for 
proper functioning. 




What's^' 
wrong O^ 
With voj? ] 



-21 - 



CHAPTER 3 "SPECIFIC ATI OMS OF BASIC" 

The general specifications of the BASIC language and its commands and sentences will be 
described below: 



Functien 



To briefly describe the functfon of a command or a sentence. 
Format | To ehpTain the proper format of a command or a santenca, 
Summ aryl To explain a command or a sentence in detail and to clarify the relation of the 

command or sentence with a corresponding command or sentence, 
Exam plo ] TosummarizG basic format of a command or a sentence. 



I Mote I To summarize notes for employing a command or using a senterce. 

proper formats for comn^nds and sentences are described in the format of the BASIC 

language in accordance with the following descriptive rules. 

Ml Input an item represented by letters as it is. 

12) Specify the contents of items with the symbols < ), 

When the contents witlim the symbols represent a description such as "relation" or 

"relation n" the relation here means an arithmetic relation. 
13} Omit items with the symbols [ ] since they are optional items. 
14) fie sure to select one element of the contents of an item with the symbols j j, since 

these are selective. 
15] The symbol i indicates "or". 
I6J The symbols . . . indicates repetition, within the range of one line of the item imme- 

drately before the current item, 
(71 Input symbols other than symbols [ ] and < ). 

Section 1 — General Description of Grammar af BASIC — 

1.1 Operalm^ Mode 

When power Is supplied to the Panasonic personal computer JRIOOU, the screen displays 

"BEADY". This displayed word indicates that the computer is awaiting a command input. 

Therefore, this status of the computer is the so-cafled command mode. In the command 

mode, BASIC commands are executed and BASIC sentences are used as the commanris- 

The lattej- application is called the direct mode. In the command mode, the cursor is usually 

di^fay&d at the left &nd c»f the line. 

When the program i^ executed with the RUW commanrf, the cnmmanri mode is aulomati- 



-22- 



cally convcrtad to the program modo. In this rnode, the cursor is not displayed or the 
screen. The command mode is restored iri/hen the projiram finishing executing a command 
such as the STOP sentence or the END sentence- Furtheimure, the prograFii may be cancel!^ 
ed by the BREAK key operation. 

For executing a BASIC sentence in the direct mode, a sentence without a Nne number is 
input artd the IRE TUP MJ key is pressed to complete the sentence input. 

1 2 Una Format and Line Number 

The line is a basic unit in the BASIC program as follows; 

n [ (space)) < BASIC sentence ) 1 : ^ BASIC sentence ) . .. I iRETURWl 
n, which is called the line numb&r, identifies the [ine and is always olaced at the beginning of 
each line. The range of n fs 1 to 32767. When two or more BASIC ^ententesare written in 
one line, the sentence? ere divided by the symbol ;. Each line consists of 72 characters at 



maximum, and the [RETURHl key is always keyed in at the end of each line. In order to 
emphasize the format of the line, (he characteristic features are summarized Cielow: 



Linenumbef 1 to 32767 

Symbol for dividing BASIC sentences : 

Line length up to 72 characters 



1^ Constants 

Constants are fixed values in a program. The constants con^ifit ot value constants and charac- 
ter-string constants. 

(1) Value constants: jniegers between -32767 anfl + 327S7. These constants are deacn 
ed with decimal or hexadecimal notation in the program. When the constants 
described in hexadecimal natation, the symbol S is added at the beginning of 
values, 

Ex. Decimal number: -15 235 IB 

Hexadecimal number: SFFFif SOlW^fi SO $F 

(2) Character-string constants: alphanumeric characters within quotation mar 
they consist of 32 charactsrs at maximum. A space h counted a^ a character, 
E!t. "ABC^XYZ" "10-100" "♦♦IT*" 

1.4 Variables 

Variables are used for temporarily storing data in execution of the progra' 

resfjondtng to the stored data is called the variabli; name. This data is user 



-23- 



vaiu& in The program or for recalljng the data tor a specific purpose. 

(1 } Types of Variahfes 

Ths variables are classified into three types in accordance with the types o^ data. 

• Vaf\je variable; the ranifS of tliii variable is -32767 to +32767. The variable 
consists of data of 2 bytes. 

• Character-String variable: the variable consists of data of 32 characters at maxl 
mum, and occupies an area of The memory which corresponds lo the length of the 
characters. 

• Array variable; this includes a set of data which lb accessed by its variable name, 
al Though it i% included in the value variable. 

(2J Names of Variable 

• VdluE? vdildblc Mdnii;; < leLLer } 

( letter } f < number ) ] 

{example) A CO X1 

• Character variable name: < letter } J 

leKample) DS WS 

• Array variable name: i alphabet > 

lexample] E(B) F(3, 2) 
Here ( letter ) is defined as one of the letters A to Z and ( number ) is defined as one of the 
numbers to 9. 

1 B Expressbns and Operations 

Expressions include constant and variable elements which are connected by operators. The 

order of operation of the expressfons h properfy described. 

(1) Arithmetic expressions and Operations 

ArithmeTic expressions Include elements such as value variables, value constants, array 

variables and function valuer which are combined by arithmetic operations. The operated 

results are all values. The arithmetic operators are shown helQw: 



Operator 


Operation 


Ficample 


+ 


Addition (positivel 


A+5 


— 


Subtraction { negative J 


-B and A - B 


t 


Multiplication 


A t a and C * 2 


/ 


Division 


A/B and 10/C 



-34- 



When many operators are ircludsd in an arithmatic expression, muliiplicatbn and divUion 
are performed prior to addition and subtraction. Hov\iever, when parentheses are present, 
the elements within the parentheses are first caiculafed. Various expressions are described 
in the BASIC language. 



< Expression ) 


(Arithmetic Expression in BASIC Lan^uatie > 


2x + y 


2 XX + Y 


x{a + 3) 


X « (A * 3} 


x= -y^ 


XiX- Y * Y 


(a + t>}/(a-b) 


(A + B}/(A-B1 



The function value may also be utilized in the ehthmeiic calculations. 
For adding 1 to the remainder o1 a/b: 

MOD (A, B] + 1 
For miJliiplylng 10 limes the value obtained by subiracting 1 from the absolute value 



(ABS(A1-1)*10 
For producing random numbers In the range between 10 to^fe i,-^ ; 

For calculating the remainder obtained by dividing the number of characters stored in 

the character variable C3 by 4: 
MOD fLEN iC$),4j 
Refer to section 3 for details on functiors. 
[2] Character-String Ejtpressiorsand Operations 

The character-string expressions are kised for combining character-siring variables and char- 
acterstring function ^lalues. The calculated results obtained by con>bining the character- 
String expressions with the operator -i- are character-string data. 



Character string variable 
Character-string corstant 
Character-string function 



Character-String variable 
Character-string constant 
Character-string function 
fn this manner, the character-string expressions are used for combining character-string 
constancs, character-string variables and character-string function values. 

If AS='Ar'andeS = "BZ", and if AS -K BS is input, then A1B2 is obtained. 
If "String" + "DATA" is input, then STHINGDATA is obtained. 
If LEFT$(AS, 11 + RIGHTS (6S. U is input, then A2 is obtained. 



-25- 



[MS+"^^" + BS is input, then AT ^ ^ B2 is obtained. 
Hoivever^ if the calculated lesults are longer than 32 characters, the 33fd character and all 
following characters sre omittedr 
C3} Compflf rson Expression 

A companson expression compares two different ^alue data or character-siring date end has 
s va\iie which h true (1) oe iaise 10), The comparison expression consists of two relations 
which are combined by a comparison ooerator. 

(Ejfpression 1 ! ( Comparison Operator ) (Expression 2) 
Expressions 1 and 2 must be ihe same type ot data, regardless of whether they are arith- 
metic expressions or character-string expressions. The comparison operators are classifisd 
into 5 operators as follows: 



Comparison Operator 


Relation to be Compared 


Example 


= 


equal to 


X = Y 


> 


greater than 


AS > "A" 


< 


less Xhsn 


X< 100 


>= 


greater than or equal to 


LEW {A$]>= 5 


<= 


less than or equal to 


X<- V- 10 


<> 


not equal to 

1 1 


A£ <> B$ 



The comparison of the character-string data complies with Ihe followiny rules. 

\) Each o^ the characters of the respective character-strinfj expressions from the 

beginning is compared. A space betijveen characters h regarded as a character. 
ii) A larger value or a small value of a character is determined by the corresponding 
larger or smaller value in the character code. 
In accordance with the abo\/e rules, the comparison of The character-string e>:pfessions is 
judged as follows: 

If A$ = "AB", A$ = "AB" 
If AS = "AB", AS< "AC" 
Jf AS = "ABC". AS>"AB" 
If AS = "133", A$<"I24" 
If A£= "12_, A$> "12" 

In this manner, the left-hand element of the comparion oxpreasion is restricted to one 
character variable. 



-26- 



(4) Logical ExpresGion 



Logical Operator 


Logical Expression 


i 


AND 


+ 


OR 



The following loQicat expressions are obtained by combmtng comparison expfessions with 
a logical opera tor. 

IF (A<a) t (C> D), THEN... (ANDJ 

If both comparison expressions (A < 8) and tC > D) are !r\je, the operation after 
"THEN" is performed. If one of the comparison expressions (A < B) and (C > D} 
IS true, or if neither of the comparison expressions ^A < B] and (C > D) is tme, 
the operation after "THEN" is omitted and the program advances to the next line. 
IF fA<B) + iC> D),THEN-,- fOP) 

If both comparison expraKions (A < B) and {C > D] are true, or if either of The 
comparison expressions [A < 8) and (C > D) is true, the operation after 'THEfsJ" 
13 performed. Otherwise, the operation is omitted end the program advances to the 
next line. 
IF tA<c B) + (C:> D) = 1,THEN ... (exclusive OR; XOR) 

If or)lv one of the comparison expressions (A < B) and (C > D) it true, thfl opera- 
tion after "THEN" is performed, If both comparisons (A < B) and (C > D) are 
eilher true or false, ihe proa'am advances to the next line, 
Each element of the fogifal expression has a logical value of 1 wh^n it W true; the element 
has a logical value of when it is false. Therefore, the following operation can be per- 
formed. 
(Example) 

The lowest digit of value N including one-digit, two-digit, three-ciigjt and lour-digil 
values is aligned a^ follows; 

PRINT SPC(fN< 10} + <N< 100) + (N < 1000) );N 

that Is, 

34 

5 

126 

357B 

4B 

219 



-27- 



1.6 Array Declaration and Element Reierance 

An array which is a set o^ data can be accessed by an array variable name. The array variable 
name declares the name of the array and the number of elements included in this 5et of 
data. The array declaration has a format as toMows: 

{ Array Variable Name > { ( Lrmrt 1 > I . < Limit 2 ) ) ) 
UVhen limit 2 is omitted, the formal is called a one-dimensioral array; when limits 1 and 2 
are specified, the format is called a two-dim en si ana I array. The values of limits 1 and 2 indi- 
caies the maximum value, whbh mav be withiri lhe ran<ie of 1 to 255. 
(EKample) 

i) When array X having 10 elemeni$ i$ declared: 

DiMXflOj 
11} When array Y having 5 k 4 = 20 elements is declared: 

DIM Y{5,4> 
An elements 0+ the array is specified by an array i/ariabie. The format of the array element is 
as follows: 

'. Array Variable Name i { < Expression ^) [ .< Expression 2 > I ) 
therein the lower limit of expressions 1 and 2 is 1 and the upper limits ol the expressions 
1 and 2 are, respectively, the values of limits 1 and 2. 
The 5lh element of ilie onedimensional array X is: 

X[5) 
and the fl t J - 1 )xh element is expressed as follows: 

X [I *J - T} 
Furthermore, the element of the second r^>w and third column is: 

/ [2, 3) 
and the element or the (I — 1 Jth column and J row is: 

V{I-1.JJ 



T.7 Display Elements and Print Elements 

In PRINT flr>d LPRINT sentences, values to be printed Bnd character string data are speci- 
fied as display and print elements. These elements include most of the data descriptions 
which are dealt with in the BASIC language. 

i Expression 1 > 

{ Character-string Variable > 

i Character-string Constant '/ 

TAB ME>:preHiDn2M 

SPC [f Expression 3 M 

FLD(| on J } 



Dispiay Element 
Print Element 



-28- 



Refer to Section 3, Chapter 3 far details on "funotione- 

1 .9 User's Detinitiun Characters 

One of The characteristic features of Panasonic Personal Computer JR 100U BASIC is Iha 

uBfir'R definition characters. Various panerns are created by combining normal riisplay and 

inverted dispaly of the letters, numbers, syn^bots and serni-graphic characters as shown m 

the character code table. However, pattern creation by the user's definition characters lias 

a llrnit, 

h order to solve this problem, user's definition characters are created by pragramming for 

elaborating character design, For example, a Greek letter, a mathematical symol or a letter 

having four character regions Is displayed, f Lirthermore, smooth curves and threedimen- 

sional graphtc£ar« also drav^n. 

Creation of the user's definition character is oerformed with the OPTION sentence fto be 

described in 2,25 ol chapter 3) and the FLD function (to be described in 35 of chapter 3). 

Section 2 — BASIC Command and Sentences — 

2.1 AUTO 

Function: To automatically generate a line riumber prior to a sentence input and To sequen- 
tially display the line numbers. 

Format: AUTO I ( Expression ) ] 

Summary: The first line number of a specHied expression is first displayed, and line num- 
bers in increments of 10 ere displayed for each tenth line lo aasiit in input. When 
input of < Expression ^ is omitted, the line number begins with 10, 

Eitampre: AUTO 100 IRETURrJJ 



100 PRINT "AUTO" [RETURNI 

110 PRINT "STATEMErJT" iRfcTUHWl 

120 IBETURNI ^ Blank line 



Nota: For eliminating automatic display of the line number^ press the [RETUPn] key 

or perform the BREAK key operation, 

2.2 BEEP 

Function: To control on/off of buzi&t sound. 
Format: BEEP lOM 1 

Summary: Buzzer sound is generated in BEEP l^ while buzzer sound is not produced in 
B^EP 0, When only BEEP is specified, the buzzer sound is produced for about 



-29- 



0.5 second. 

Refer to 5.1 o1 chapter 2 "Control ot Buzzer Sound". 

EKamplfl: 6EEP I ^ 

I Buzzet sound i£ produced between BEEP 1 and BEEP 0. 
BEEPO ! 

23 CLEAR 

Function; To initialize all the variables. 

Format: CLE^lR 

Summary: Charcicter variable A to Z are set at and other value variable are deleted. 

2.4 CLS (Clear Screen) 

Functions To delete current displayed contents or the screen and to move the curaor to the 
home position (upper left correr of the screen). 

Fonnat: CLS 

Suminary: Data displayed on the scrEen is deleted while ihe same daia stored in the mem- 
ory is rot deleted This BASIC command is used for changing the contents on 
the screen at the beginning or midway through the program. 

2.5 CONT (Cominue) 

Function: To restarts program which is interrupted by the STOP sentence. 
Format: CONT 

EKsmple: ( Program > i Command > 

enecution •- RUN 

STOP -* interruption 

Check the program by a direct command, 
restart *- COrJT 
Noia: Refer to 2.34 lor details on the STOP sentence. 

2.6 DATA 

Function: To store data in the data pool 

Format: DATA < Constant > [ , < Constant ) . . . ] 

Sumnary; Any DATA sentance of the program may be stored in the memory. The r>uml>er 

of constants to be written for one DATA sentence may be arbitrarily selected. 

The constants are regarded as a series of constants aligned according to the order 

of the line numbers, 

IJse the READ sentence when data is to be read out from the data pool. When 



-30- 



the data rsad out is reari out again, the RESTORE sentence ^command) rnusT be 

input for this purpose. 
Example: 50 DATA 10, 3 

100 DATA ASCD, 

The above B>;ample is the same as the DATA sentence as DATA 10. 5, ABCD, 0. 
INoie; When the number af data to be read out exceeds the cspecitvot the data pool, 

an error (OUT OF DATA ERROR) occurs. The character siring constant need 

not bfl put in quotations " " 

2.7 DIM (Dimension) 

Function: To decLare the sets of dsts to be accessed by the same name and their dimen- 
sions. 

Format: DIM Array Dedaration [ , Array Declaration ... 1 

Summary: Only array declared by the DIM sentence are only accessed. The array ^^ariable 
name is identified by the array decfaraiior* and the element number and its order 
are deiormlrad. 

Example: DIM A (10) The nurnber of etenients of one dimensional array variable name 

A is 10. 
DIM A (5, 3) The number of variable elemems of two-dimensional array vari- 
able nsme B are S * 3= 15. 

Note: The number of the element declared by the DIM sentence is set at at first 

The efemenr is referred to by array variable name (expression) or by the array 
variable name (expression 1, expression 2). The lower limit o1 the value of the 
expression is 1 and the upper limit is 255, When the value of the expression is 
larger than the value specified by tfie array declaration, this is regarded as an 
error. 

2.S END 

Function: To complete execution of a program. 

Format: END 

Summary: This cornmand may be omitted when the program is completed at the highest 

line number. When the END sentence is Jnpui, ihe program mode is initrrjpted 

and a new command can be input in the computer. 



Example: 



lOO IF A = THEN EP^D 

b 
W 

^ 

250 END 

-31 - 



2.9 FIND 

Function: To search lor a lire indiding a specitied character-string and lo display the 

entire part. 
Formats FIND C Characterstring Constant^ 
Summarv: Since a particular character-string can be specified, this command mav be con- 

venientlv used for selective display of a line in debugging. 
Example: For displaying all the lines including character -string PRINT, input 

FIND "PRINT" 

2.10 FOR . ..NEXT 

Function: To perform a sentence betvueen FOR and NEXT sentences as many limEs as 

specified. 
Format: FOR (Value Variable J = (Expression 1 > TO ( Expression 2 ) 

[ STEP ( Expression 3>| 

f^eXT [{Value Variable^ 
Summary: Repetition of the FOR ... NEXT sentence is a controlled loop. Therefore, 

within the loop, an area which is surrounded by the FOR sentence and the 

NEXT sentence is repeatedly performed if ihe va^ue variables of The FOB and 

NEXT sentences coincide. 



FOR f = l TO 10-^ 



NE>rr I 



Range of FOR NEXT ioop 



The uafue variable i« called the loop control variable witliin the loop. Some FOR 
sentences mav have a value of 1. When the NEXT sentence f command) is exe- 
cuted, the value of expression 3 is added to the loop control variable and the 
results are compared with the value of expression 2. If the loop control variable 
IS less than or equal to the value of expression 2, the program advances to the 
sentence foMovuing to the FOR sentence. However, if the loop control variable 
is greater than the value of expresston 2, the sentence following the NEXT 
sentence (command) is executed. 

A multiple loop is performed for nesting the FOR . , , NEXT loops. However, 
becsreful not lo cross the FOR . . NEXT loops. 



Example! 10 FOR X = 1 TO ID STEP 2 

20 PRINT X 
30 NEXT X 



A Icop is repeated five times in which every 
time X takes a different odd number 1, 3, 5, 
7 or 9. 



-32- 



Double loop, A table 
including 81 values 
isdispiayedas prod- 
jcfsof f X j, ,., ,9x 9 



70 FOR X = 1 TO 9 
20 FOR Y = 1 TO 9 

30 PRmT X ;"X";Y;"=";X* V;" "; 

40 Nt^T Y 
50 PRINT 
60 NEXT X 

Note: 8e carelul to note thai a foop is perfornied once when expression T h larger Ihan 

expression 2. The riiuitJple loop may be perforfned t*n times, STEP 1 may bs 
omiiffld. 

Z.n S0SU8., , RETURN/RET 

run&tioiu To dcce» d ^Jjioutlne onO Lv cJvdnLC to a iiffAl acntcncc. 

Format: GOSUB ( Expression > 

The format may be abbreviated in RETURN ■«- RET. 

Sumrnary: A serktence whose line number is the expression value is accessed for the begm- 
ning of the subroutine and ilie RETURN sentence is input ai the end of the 
subroutine. The next seritence is then iniliated in the GOSUB command. The 
subroLT tine may be acceded in ths program a^ many timssa; n^&ded, 
A subroutine may be placed in any one o1 the main programs. The RETURN 
sentence must be input at the end of the subroutine, 

EnampJe; For accessing a subroutine beginning from line number 500; 
100 GOSUB 500 



500 REM SUBROUTINE 



550 LET RETURN 
Note; When a subroutine is accessed \n the subroutine, be careful not to exceed an 

accessing depth of more than 15. When the value o1 the expression does not have 
a corresponding line to access, an error occurs. 

2.12 GOTO 

Function: To junip to a sentence whose line number is indicated by the value of ihe 

CKpression. 
Format: GOTO ^ EKpre&aion > 
Summaty; When this sentence (command) Is executeri, the program sequence is changed 

and the sentence whose line number is indicated by the i/alue of the expfession 



-33- 



is accessed. 
Example: 100 GOTO 150 Jump to line number 150 



150 K = 220 



200 GOTO K Jump to line number 220 



220 GOTO 220 Jump to line numher 230 (Irrfinite lonp) 

Note; When the expresaon value indLcates a line number which does not exist in the 

program, an error occurs. Use the BREAK key operation to escape froTn the 
in'finite loop. 

2.13 HCOPY (Hard Copy} 

Function: To print a currently displayed image on the screen. 

Formal; HCOPV 

Summary' When continuously changing images on the screen are to be printed, input the 

HCOPY sentence for your convenience. 
Note: Use the BREA< key operation to interrupt prinilnti. Tf the HCOPY lunction 

mode key is used, the printing operation is performed without displaying the 

primed contents on the screen, 

2.14 IF... THEN 

Function: To change the program sequence in accordance with tfia conditior^s specified by 

a comparison expression. 
Format: IF ( Eifpression 1 ) Comparison Operator < Expression 2 > [THEN] 
Summary: If the compared resufts are true, the sentence after THEN" is executed. !f the 

resuhisare falae, the ne>;t sentence h executed, 
E>(ample^ IF A <- THEN GOTO 100 

(which indicates that ii A is zero, execute GOTO 1 001 
IF BS= "STRING" THEN S= 1 : GOTO 50 

(which Indicates that \i 65 is equal to character-string 3TRI NG, first execute 
S = 1 and jump to line number 50) 
Note: If the expressions to be compared are not the same type (value or character- 

string), an error occurs. 



-34- 



2.15 INPUT 

Function' To input data with the kevt»oard and to substitiitp the data "for a ^/ariable. 

Formal: I NPUT I < Prompt Sentence ) J ( Variable > [ , ( Variable . . . ] 

where < Prompt Sentence > +s " f Character-string ) " 

Summarv: When this sentence Icomniand) is Inpul, 9 quastion mark ? ie displayed or the 
screen to request the data to be input. If the prompt sentence is present, this 
sentence is displayed before the question mark ? so that data to be input may be 

efliily determined. The number, order and type ol data to be input e^ter the 
question mark ? must coincide with attributes ot the k/ariables o^ the input 
sentence. Data to be input are divided by commas to be distinguished. 
Examples 10 INPUT A, B, G$ 

20 rNPUT A, e, eg: 

RUN 

? 5.-1Q If^PUT IHETUHftJI -*- Depress [RETURNI at end of the Input data. 
5 -10 irJPUT 
100 INPUT "DATA", X 
RUN 

DATA ? 1Q0 IRETURNI 
Note: Adjust the number of variables so that the number of characters tor data to be 

input iivith ot\s st^ntence is within 72 i^haractEr^. When an input i^ requested and 



only the |RETUHM| key la depressed, the question mark ? is displayed on the 
screen and (he program await^data to be input. 

2.16 LET 

Function; To evaluate an expression and to replace a variable with the calculated results. 

Format- [ LET ] f Variable Name ) = 1 ^ Arithmetic Eifpresslon ) I ( Character-String 

Expression ) 
Summary: The key word LET may be omitted. Substitution is properly performed only if 

the right hand element and the left hand element coincide in type. 
Example: TO LET 1 = 5 *- Substitute 5 for I 

20 LET J = 1 + 3 *- Substitute a Iresult of 5 + 3i for J 

30 LET K = I * I + J -^ Substitute 33 IresuU of S j- 5 -f- 8) for K 

40 LET AS = "LET— " 

50 LET eS^- "STATEMENT" 

SO LET CS = A$ + BS *- Substitute LET STATEMENT for C$ 

^ All LETS can be omitted. 



-35- 



2.17 LIST 

Function; To displav all or part ot a program stored in ihe memory. 

Formal: LIST | (Line Number) [ ,( Line Njmber 2 } I ] 

Summflrv- Wlien line riumbera are not specified, the entire program Is displayed. When line 
number 1 is specified, the corresponding line h displaved. Further, when line 
r^umber 1 and 2 are specified only. The first and second linraarG displayed. 
The line numbers ate displayed beginning with the smallest numbers. When the 
specified lino may not be eniifBly displayed on the screen, the currently display 
ed image is rolled up to display the rest of the line. Continuously press en arbitra 
ry hey iexcluding the BREAK F^eyHo obtain a tationary tmaqe in this command. 

Example; LIST Entire program is displayed. 

LIGT 100 OrtI/ lino numbor 100 is displayod. 

LIST 100, 200 Content! betiA/een line number? 100 and 200 are displayed. 

LIST 100,0 Contents after the line number 100 are displayed. 

2.18 LLIST 

Function: To print all or part of the program stored in the memory. 

Format: LLIST [ ( Line Number M[,{ Line Number 2 } ] 1 

Summary; The Ifne numbers are specified in the same manntr as in the LIST command. 

Note: Use the BREAK key to interrupt printing. 

2.19 LOAD 

Function: To retrieve a BASIC program from the cassette tape and to store it in the mwn 
ory, 

Forniai: LOAD [ "( File f^ame)"] 

where ( File Name ) is a character string of up to 15 characters. 

Summary: When the LOAD command is executed, the instruction PUSH PLAY ia dis- 
pTaycd, Set the cassette tape recorder in the reproducing mode. The status 
LOADING is displayed, and the file name is then displayed. 
When the file name is omittedn the fist file searched is input after the command 
inpuL When a file name is specified, searching is performed until the correspond- 
ing file is found. Even if other fiiesare -founds the instruction SKIP ( File Name ■ 
is displayed so that proper searching is assured. 

When input of the specified tile is completed, READY js displayed on the screen 
so that turn the tape recorder may be turned off. 



-36- 



FMmple: LOAD "GAME" 

{which indicates that file name GAME is input.) 
LOAD 

[which indicates that tlie first file searched from the current position of the 
cassette mdgnecic lape is itipui] 
Note: When a reading error occurs during input of data, the instruction SUM CHECK 

ERROR is displayed on the screen. Check its cause by referring to section 6, 
chapter?. Use the BREAK key to interrupt the data input 

2.20 LOCATE 

Function: To move the cursor to an arbitrarv position on the screen. 

Formats LOCATED Expression \ } ,{ Expression 2) 

summary: wnen me upper left corner is Oeflned ds ihe orlyin (0, 0) aiiU die luvrer riylii 

corner \s defined es (23, 31), the cursor may be moved to an arbitrary position 

within Thi5 range. 
Example: Display symbol at 13th digit in 5th Jine . 

LOCATE 5. 13: PRINT" " 

Display! atSih digit from 2nd line to 10 th fine 

10 FOR 1 = 2 TO 10 

20 LOCATE 1,9 

30 PRINT " I " ; -^ I : T) of Graphic mode 

40 NEKT 1 
Nots: Specify the range of expressions 1 and 2 as follows: 

< Expression 1 < 23 and < Expression 2 < 31 

2.21 LPRINT 

Function: To print vaijedata or character-string data at the printer. 
Format; LPRINT ( Print Element) i (Division Symbol >i Print Elements . . , ] 
Summary: This command is the same a& the PRINT command except that the results are 
printed out at the printer. 

2.22 MLDAD 

Function: To retrieve the rnachine language recorded on the cassette magnetic tape and to 

stored It in [he memory, 
Formati MLOAD | "( File Name) " ] 
Summarv- This command is the same as the LOAD command except that the retrieved 

language is machine lunijjc^ge, while BASIC Is retrieved in the case of the LOAD 

coinmand. 



-37- 



223 MSAVE 

Furetion: To put a f tie nanse for 3 machine language program stored in the memory and to 
record it on the magnetic lape. 

Format: WSAVE ["< File Name >" ] , (Start Address ),< End Addre« J 

Swmmar/: This command is ihe same as the SAVE command, except that the machine 
language is recorded an the mayneiic tape, while the BASIC language is recorded 
on the magnetic tape, while the SASIC language k recorded on tlie magnetic 
tape in the SAVE command. An address can be accessed by a decimal number 
or a hexadecLrrtal number /i/ich $. 

2.24 NEW 

Function: To deiete all the BASiC programs stored in the memory. 

Format: NEW 

Summafyi When a nenv pr[>gram is input, the previousiy stored programs are cieared. 

2.25 OPTION 

Function; To select the screen display mode or the overfiow processing mode. 
Format; OPTION | CMODEO i CIWODEl ) i | OVFO i OVFlj 
Summary: CMODEO: To seiect the inverted character mode. Aii the characters In the char- 
acter code table and th«ir inverted characters are displayed, 
CMODEI: To select a user's definition character mode. All the characters in the 
character code table and the user's definition character code tabie are 
displayed. 
OVFO: To select the overfiow detecting mode Afhicii is initiated immediately 

after overflow occurs. 
0VF1: To select the overflow nondetecting mode to continue the program 

sequence even though overflow occurs. 
When s di^piayed character is si^ecifiedn use a character in the character coda 
table. However, when an inverted character or a user's definition character is 
input, the FLD function is utilized to specify either type of character in thfl 
printed elements. (Refer to section 3.5 for details on the FLD function.) 
Example: For specifying the overfiow nondetecting mode: 
OPTIOIN 0VF1 

For specifying the user's definition character mode: 
OPTIOM CMODEl 
Note; The inverted character mode and the overflow detecting mode are specified 



-38- 



when the OPTION is omitted. 

2.26 PICK 

Function: To repiaca, in dccimaf notation, a variable by the character code of a ke^ which 

h pressed when this PICK command is performed. 
Format: PICK < Value Variable} 
Summary: If data is not input, input sentences are generall/ not axecutad. Howavern the 

PICK sentence is executed re^rdless of the presence or absence of input data. 

When the PICK sentence is executed, the character code of the key wfiich is 

pres^d is substituted for the value variable. When the key is not pressed, the 

value of is RLrbstituted. 
EKamole: For waitino until a kev is oressed for the execution of the PICK sentence: 

10 PICK K 

30 IF K = THEM GOTO 10 

2.27 POKE 

Function: To write data of 1 byte in a specified address of the memorv- 

Format: POKE { Expression 1 ) , (Expression 2 > 

Sumirary: The lovuec byls of expression 2 is written by defining the value of expression 1 

as the memory address. In other words, data to be writtsn in the mernory must 

be in the range of to 255 hyies. 

The opposite (unction of the POKE funciion is the PEEK function (refer to 

section 3,12). The POKE and PEEK commands are directly written In the 

memory, and are conveniently used for data exchange with the m^shine len- 

Boage 
Example: For writing data of 5 in address SI 000 of the memory: 

POKE S1000,5 

For writmg the values of variable X, which are divided into upper and lower 

bytesjfito addresses 2000 and 200K 

POKE 2000. X/256 

POKE 2001, X 
Lola: Ba careful not to dastfoy data of the memory area which is used for the BASIC 

tanguage; refer to section 2, chapter 1 an the memory arrangement. 

Z.28 PRLIMT 

Functioi>; Todi&plav value and chardcter-atring d^ta on Ihi; di&play atreen. 

Format: PRINT ( Display Element > [ < Division Signal > ( DlGplay Element K . .] 



-39^ 



Surnmary: When the display element h omilled^ only the fines are changed. Refer to sub' 
section 1.7,ch3f3tpr 3 on the display element. 

• Display Position 

The display begins from the cursor position. One line on the screen is ditfided 
into four lengths {each corresponding to S digits). If division signal is a 
comma ( , ), the display element is displayed at the beginning of the neict 
display length, ff the division signal is semicolon ( ; \. the display element 
ii displayed immediately afier the diipldyed ddtd. 

• Display Continuation 

When a line is completely displayed within the range of 72 dnaracters, auto- 
matic line return is performed and data input is continued, When the last 

element of (he PflINT atiileiiue la Lliedi^^ld/ irlciiicriL, Uib \'h\v ib ivlurned 
and the display is completed. If the la^t olsment of the line is a comma, the 
first element of the next display element of the PRINT sentence is displayed 
in the first position of the subsequent divided length. Furthermore, when the 
last element of the PRINT sentence \i a semicolon, the first display element 
of the next PRINT sentence is displayed immediately after ^e end of the 
current PRINT sentence. 
Example: i Program ) < Display ) 

PPINT Linefeed 

PRINT 'ABCj^'DEF" ABCD^F 



PRIfNT "ABC 



DEF" 



ABC 



DFF 



TO A = 123 

20 PRINT "A-";A 



A- 123 



10 fOR I = S41 TO $46 
20 PRINT CHRSiil: 
30 NEXT I 



ABCDEF 



( Display > 

A___^. 
E __, 



< Program ) ( Display ) 

PRINT t_|"#St _l"iS 

Use a mark ( ' ) in place of a mark f " I to display the mark f " } in the PRINT 

sentence. 



-40- 



Note; Use a semicolon ( ; ) or a comma ( , ) for spacing sentence separaiion as well es 

SPC, TA5, be FLD functions to be described later for better display, 

2-29 READ 

Function; To read outdsta from data pool and sub^itut? it in a variable;. 

Famiati READ (Variable) [ , (Variable >. . .] 

Summary: When thp R^AD eenrence i^ input, data re seqjentiafly read out from the data 
pool created by the DATA sentence. The readoul data are ssQuentially siibstitut- 
ed In variable&. Even if the REA[> sentence Is divided into segmentiH data im- 
mediately before tha currant READ wrtenca is read out first. 
When ;he readoul data is read out apain, use Ihe RESTORE sentence (refer to 
subsection 2.31), 

Example: 10 DATA 1,2.3 

20 DATA ■'DATA"/'STATEMENT" 

30 READ A. B ^ Equivalent to A = 1 and B - 2 

40 READ C, DS *- Equivalent to C = 3, DS = "DATA" 

inn QccTAor Return the position of readout data to 

1U0 ntb 1 OHt starting oosition of data pool. 

110 READ I, J, K *- Equivalent to 1 = 1, J = 2 and K = 3 

10 DIM X [10) 
20 FOR J- T TO 10 

30 READ X U) ^ Subititytel to IQfor X (1) to X (10) 

40 NEXT J 
50 DATA 1,2,3,4,5 
60 DATA 6,7,0.9, 10 
Note; All the data need not be read out from the data pooL If the variable of th^ 

READ sentence ar>d the type of data to be read out do not coincide, or if many 
data which exceed the capacity of the data pool are readout, an error occurs. 

2.30 REM 

Function: To describe remarks of a program. 

Format: REIVl [ < Character-String ) | 

Summary; The REM sentences has no function fcr performing the pfogram so that no 

influence Jg given for execution of the program. The REM santsncQ is used for 

easy operation of the program as the reference. 



-41 - 



Note: If a sentence is added to the REM sentence bv dividing them by a colon, this 

irput is neytecled. 

231 RESTORE 

Function; To map the data readout position from the data pool with the beginning of tht 
data pool or with the beginning of a arbitrary DATA sentence. 

Farirat: RESTORE ' f Expression ) ) 

Summar/: When the expression is omitted, data be read out Is mapped from the beginning 
of the data pool. However, if an expression is specified^ the daiH readout posi- 
tion ia mapped from the begirnina of the data whnse line number is the value of 
the e^pression. 

txampie: lO head a. B *- SuDsiIluih a = l and B - 2 

20 RESTORE ^ Restore ihc start position of the data pool 

30 READ [, J -*- Substitute I = 1 andJ = 2 

40 RESTORE <- R&store line number 70 

50 READ X, Y ^ Substitute X - -1 and Y = -2 

60 DATA 1,2,3,4. 

70 DATA 1,-2,-3,-4 

Nota: The RESTORE sentence may be repeated. If a sentence whose line number is 

Specified by the expression is not a DATA sentence, the next DATA sentence 
after the specified line number is searched- \i no DATA sentence is present, an 
error occurs. 

2.32 RUN 

Function: To begin the program with the sentence having the smallest line number. 

Format; PUN 

STimmary: With this command, the computer is set in the orogram mode. In this mode, the 
cursor is not displayed except for executing the INPUT sentence. When the 
program made is converted to the command mode, the program Is intermpted 
by the STOP sentence, completed by the END sentence, or canceled by the 
BREAK key. 

Note: When the program is to be operated from the middle, use the GOTO command. 

2.33 SAVE 

Function: To record s BASIC program with a file name stored in the memory. 
Format: SAVE ["< File Name )" ] 



-42- 



Summary i Set the cassette lape recarder in the recording mode tielore inputting tHii$ com- 
martd. Wtien the SAVE command is input WRITING and the file name are 
displayed on ihe screen. When writing is completed, READY is displayed and 
the command mode is restored. Turn off the cassette tape recortler. The file 
name may be omitted. 

Example: SAVE "GAfVlEr' [which indicates that file name GAME 1 is assigned to a 
program and thjs program isrecordec on the cassette magnetic tape.) 

Note: When the BREAK key operation is performed, the program is restored to tha 

command mode, and the daia which haje bfiRn stored may he lost. 
Reading is performed by deleting the data which have been recorded in order to 
avoid overlapping the data with other data. Espetiaily, Wfhen a program which 
is input in the LOAD command iseditad and is written in the same location, the 
Isngth of the program mav be increased $□ that the gap between the files is 

sufficient. 

2.34 STOP 

Function: To interrupt execution of a program and to restore the command mode. 

Format: STOP | < Display Element > I ( Division Symbol ) ( Display Element ) . . . ] | 

Summary: The STOP sentence is used for temporarily interrijpting the program. Use the 
STOP sentence as often as needed at anywhere in the program- 
When a character- string \a input, thia character-string is displayed as a unit. Since 
the program is lemporarify interrupted, the vaJue stored in a variable may be 
checked by the PPINT command in the direct mode, or the program sequence 
can be changed by the LET command. 

For restoring the current program, use the COWT command (refer to section 
2.5). 

Example: ( Program } < Command > 

10 A = 5 -*- RUN 



50 STOP 



-*■ PRINT A 


'- Display A 


A = 3 


*- Change A to 3 


^ COMT 


■^ Continue 



2.35 VERIFY 

Function; To verify whether or not a program is recorded on a cassette magnetic tape in 
the SAVE or MSAVE command. 



-A2- 



Format; VERIFY ["{FileNameK | 

Summary: The function reads out the program recorded on the magnetic tape and com- 
pares the re::orded program on the magnetic lape with the program stored in the 
memorv. if the instruction READY is displayed, the recorded program is veri- 
fied. If the error instrjction VERTFY ERROR is dispJayed, repeat the SAVE 
command. 
The lile name mav be omitted. 

Example: VERIFY "QAMEl" (which indicates that the file with file name GAME T is 
read out and compared with the corresponding contents in the memory^. 



SecTlond - BA3JC Functions - 

BASJC irreludes 20 mtrinsrc functions. Thess functions can be freely accessed in a program. 
The value of a value function is given by a number and that of a character-string function 
is given by a character-string- 

3.1 ABS (Absolute Value) 

Function: To give the abiolute value of an expression. 
Format; AB5 [ ( Eitpression )) 
Example; For obtaining I (A — B}/C I 
ASS i(A-B)ycj 

3^ ASC (ASCII] 

Function. To gii/e, in decimal notation, the ASCI I code of the first character of Ifie char- 
acter string data. 

Format: ASC { (CharacterString Expression J ) 

Example: 10 A$ = "0123" 

20 PRINT ASC (A$) -^ Display 48 (Decimal number of ASCII codefor 0) 
30 IF ASClASi = $30 

THEN GOTO 100 ^ Jump to line number 100 

3.3 CHRS (Character) 

Function: To give a character corresponding to the ASCII code representing the value of 
the expression. 

Format: CHRS ( (Expression > ) 



-44- 



Example: 10 FOR 1 = 43 TO E7 

20 PRihJT CHRSd): *- Diiplav0l33456789 

30 NEXT I 

3.4 FRE (Free) 

Function; To give the size of the rriemory atea in units of bytes. 

Format: FRE [(Character)) 

Specify any value for the expression since <. character ) does not have any mean 

Ing. 
Examplei For specifying the memory apace; 

PRINT FRE (0) 

3£ FLD(Fi«kt} 

Function: To specify controT of the field of the characters to be dMayed in the inverted 

character mode and in the user's definition character mode. 

Format: FLD { |o I t]) 

0; Initialise the normal "field 
Inverted mode 

1; Initialize the inverted chara^iter field 

0: Initialize the normal tield 
User's definition mode 

.1: Initialize the user's definition field 

The field can be specified for the display elernents and print elements of the 

PRINT sentences and LPRI NT sentence?. 
Example: in the inverted character mode; 

PRIMT "1234";FLD{1):"1234" 

1234 Q F4 ^£9 is displayed. 
Note: The field returns to the normal field after execution of the PRINT sentenca. 

3.6 HFX$ 

Function; To convert the value of the expression into a numeral of 2 or 4 digits in hexa- 
decimal notation and to give its cfiaracter-string. 

Format: HEX$ (^Expression)) 

Example: 10 J= 100 

20 PRiNT HEXSin ^ Display64 

3.T HPOS, VPOS (Horizonta Vertical Poiilion) 

Function: To output a horizontal position (HPOE) and a vertical position EVP03) of the 
cursor. 



-4B- 



Format: HPOS ((Expression)) 

VPOS ((Exprewion)) 

Spect-fy anv value for the expression since it does not have any meaning. 
Examples 10 PRIWT ■'^", 

20 A^VPOSfO) 

30 B - HPOS fO) 

40 LOCATE A, B 

50 PRINT "♦" ^ DisDiay ♦ at 8(h digit in the same line of 1> 

Nota: HPOS and VPOS provide the position of the cursor immediately atter execution 

of the preceding PRINT senienc^. 

3,S LEPIS 

Function: To extract snd give the value of the cheracter string of the expressior from tha 

start of the character-atring data stored in the character-string variable. 
Farmat: LEFTS ( ( Character-String Variable K< Expression ) ) 
Example: 1 ^ Expression ^ 32 

10 CS = 'ABC^DEF" 

20 PRINT LEFTS (C£, 5) ^ Displey ABC_D 

3.9 LEN (Length) 

Function: To give the number of characters stored in the character-string variable, 
Format: LEW { i Character-String Variable } ) 
Example: 10 D$ = "JRIOOU^ BASIC" 

20 PRINT LEN (DS) ^ Display 13 

3.10 MID$ 

Function: To give character-string data stored in the character string variablen a desired 

position of which in extracted, 
Forniat; MID$ (< Character-String Variable > , < Expression 1 > ,< Expression 2 J ) 

Expression 1: Position of the character to be extracted 1 ^ < Expression ) ^ 32 

Expreaaion 2; The number of chari^cters to bs extracted. In the case of omis- 
sion, the characters are extracted up 1o the end. 
Example: 10 DS = "JR-100U_._ BASIC" 

20 PRINT MID$jDSh4, 3} ^ Display 100 

3.11 MODfModula} 

Functions To give the remainder of a division operation. 



-46- 



Format: fWOQ ( '- Expression 1 ) , < Expression 2 ) 1 

Example: For obtaining the remainder ol division of (A + B) bv2t 

MOD (A -^ B, 2) -^ Residual when {A + B) i^ divided by 2. 

For making a jump to s column address 100, if thevalus of A is an odd nuiubBr; 

50 IF MOD [A, 2) =1 THEN GOTO 100 

3.12 PEEK 

Function: To provide data of T byte which i$ read out from the specified memorv address. 

Format; PEEK f C Expression M 

Example: For obiaining a tolal sum of data from sdrirEss $1000 to address Si OOF of the 

memory, 

10 S = U 

20 FOB 1 = $1000 TO SIOOF 

30 S - £ 4 PEEK Ml — Obtain totar sum 

4Q NEXT [ 

3.13 RIGHTS 

Function: To extract the number of the characters from the'lffH-end of the charactBr- 

siring data stored ir the character-strmg variable. 
Format: RIGHTS ( ( CHaracter-Etring Variable ) . ' Expression >) 

where 1 ^ ^ Expression ) < 32 

Anerroroccurswhen the value of the expression h 0. 
Ejtample: 10 C$ = "JR-lO0U BASIC" 

20 PRIMT RIGHTS (C$,5) ^ Di^lay BASIC 

3.14 RNDmandom) 

Function: To generate random numbers within the range of to ( ( Expression > — 1J 
Formal: RND ((Expression)! 

where 1 ^ ( Expression > ^ 32767 
EKampIsi For generating random numbers form to 9; 

RNDdOj 

For generating random numbers from 10 to 29: 

RND (201+ 10 

For randomly genuraiins iHtters; 

CHft$ IRND (26) + S41} 



-47- 



3.15 5GN (Sign) 

Function: To excuninc the sign cf the value and give a number representing it. 

Format: SGPJ [ (Expre$s<on) I 

When ( Expression )> G, 1 isgiven. 

When ( Eifpression ) — 0, IS gjwen. 

When ( Expression ) < 0, — 1 ^s given. 
Example: Jump to tine numbers 300, 200 and 100, if A i* positive, zero and negative, 

resoecrivelv- 

GOTO fSGN (A) + 2] * TOO 



3.1 e SPC (Space) 

Function: To display and print the specified number o1 space*. 

Format: SPC ( i. Expression ) ) 

where ^ < Expression >^ 255 

The spaces are used only far the display e laments and print elemenis. 
Example: 10 FOR 1^1 TO 5 

20 PRJNT SPC (J ) ;"A" ; SPC ( f5-]) * 2) ; "B" 

30 NEXT I 

(Display) 

^ A B 

A B 

A e 

A e 

A B 

3.17 TAB (TatHilation) 

Functior: To move the cursor to the position specified by the expression for tabulating to 

the display (print) position. 
Format: tab [ t Expression ) ) 

where ^ ( Expression ) ^ 255 

The tabu I a tin n? are used only for the display elements and print elements. 
Example: lO PPirJT TAB {2} ;"ABC' ;TAB \Q) ;"DEF" 

20 PRINT SPC (2) ;"ABC'' ;SPC (6) ;"DEF" 

The display on the screen is as shown below. Note the dffference between TAB 

and SPC. 

< Screen ^ 



a 


1 3 3 


4 5 


6 


7 


8 


9 10 n 12 13 




j A B 

■ A B 


C 
C 


1 

D 


E 


F 


i 

j D E F 

1 



*-10 
^20 



spcat 



SPC16I 



-4E- 



Note; If the tfalue of the expression is less than the current displav (pfint) position, the 

TAB command is negiected. 

3.18 USR(User) 

Function; To set a valu9 in the register of the compyier. The machine l^guage program is 

accessed as a subroutine and a return is then made to the original program. 
Format: USR ( < Expression 1 ^ [ , ^ Expression Z > [ , < Expression 3 M ] J 

Vnlue of < Expression 1 > : sel in the progrem counter 

Valu? r>f { Expresiork 2 ) : ^1 in the 5 and A reQi^ter 

Value of < Expression 3 ) : set in the B and A register 

If < Expression 2 >and < Expression 3 >are omitted, is set. 
r>iarrtpl«: The moGitinc ian^uage program ai addrca^ £1000 of the memory is Deceased cia 

a subroutine. is sel in 64 (S40) is ^el in the A register. 

G = USR(31000,0,$0140) 

The value of the B and A ragisters when returning from :he machine language 

program are suppiied to Q after execution. 



3.19 VAL (Valu«} 

Function: To convert the character string into a value. 
Format: VAL ( < Characier-String Variable > I 
Example: 10 A$ = "l?' 

20 B$ = "34" 

30 CS = AS + BS 

40 C = VAL(A$] + VAL(B$) 

BO PRiNT C$ ^ 1234 is obtained. 

60 PRiNT C ^ 46isobtained. 

Note: Ahihough the cliaracier-siring is not a value, it can be converted into s value by 

the VAL function and can then be operaieci. If the characierstring does not 

have a corresponding number, an error occurs. 




Section 4 — Error Message - 



No, 


Error Message 


1 

Meaning 


1 


' CANT CONimUE 


The program cannot be continued in the CONT 
command. The CONT command is only affec- 
tive whew ihe pro-am is interrupted by the 
STOP sentence. 


2 


5JM CHECK ERROR 


A LOAD error occurs. L[jad the program again 
at a different I'olurre leveL 


3 


DIVISION BY ZERO 
ERROR 

1 


The content of < expression Mj in ihe RND 
\ ( Expression > ], MOD ( N, ( Expression ) |. 
A Itef natively, division by Ij called for by ttie 
program. 


4 


FILP EMPTY ERROR 


The SAVE command is input when no program 
is stored in the memory. An improper address 
is specified in the MSAVE command. 


5 


ILLEGAL LINE NO. 
ERROR 


An address to bi3 jumped to rs absent in the 
GOTO command. An improper line numDer Is 
selected in line editing on the screen 


6 


; INPUT ERROR 


The INPUT sentence is used in the direct 
mode. 73 character? or more are keyed in at 
ihe keyboard. 


7 


LINE TOO LONG ERROR 


A line is too Jong To be edited on the screen. 


8 


NESTING ERPOR 


The value variable of the "FOR" and the vari- 
able of "NEXT" do not coincide. Deep nesting 
level. 


9 


OUT OF DATA ERROR 


Data which to be input by the HEAD com- 
mand is not defined in the DATA command. 


10 


OUT OF MEMORY 
ERROR 


The program is loo long. The memory area tor 

array, che racier-string is insufficient. The stack- 
ed area is insufficient because an expression is 
1oo corn plicated. 


11 


OVERFLOW ERROR 


The input value and the calculated results are 
too large or too small. 



-50- 



12 


REDPM'D ARRAY 
ERROR 


The same arrav name is used for two defini- 
tion s- 


73 


SUBROUTINE CALL 

ERROR 

1 


The RET sentence does not correspond the 
G05U6 command. The subroutine nesting 
exceeds 15. 


14 


SUBSCRIPT ERROR 


An addition to an arr^v variable is out of the 
range of definition. 


15 


SYNTAX EfiROR 


The formal is improper. Improper data [sused. 


16 


TVPE MISMATCH 
ERROR 


Different t/pes of variables are mixed in. The 
1 ^ecilied data is of different types^ 


17 


UWDEFT) ARRAY 
ERROR 


An array which does not confirm to th© DfM 
sentence is read out or written. 


1 

18 


VALUE ERROR 


Parameters which are specified, are out of the 
range of the character array function or other 
functions. A location which iG not on the 
screen is specified with the LOCATE com- 
mand. 


19 


VERIFY ERROR 


The contents of a SAVED program are differ- 
ent from those in the memory. 



-51- 



(Appendix) MUSIC PROGRAM 

JR'IOOU does not hawe a function to directly initiate a musiral pErformance. Howavsr, 
Utilising the following programn you can enjo^ the musical performance. 

100 DIK A{27,2)iP0KE SCS^B^SEO 

110 WiiTORE 9lOirOK 1=1 TO 27 lFEM> fifl,2) ,R{X,1) sNEXT 1 

120 FOR 1^1 TO lOaOO 

IJO READ B,C 

140 IF S=9°i THEH laO 

150 IF E=0 THEW GOSUB 150:NEJ(T T 

160 POKE 4ca04,A(B,l) iPOKE tCROS .A [E , 2) jGOSUE 200 

170 NEKT I 

160 POKE $caOB,0:END 

190 POKE $CaOB,0:GCSUB 20CI:POKE $Ci^OB , SRD rRET 

200 FOB M=l TO 130a;C:NEXT W : RET 

900 PEN FPEQUEHCY DATA 

910 DATA 4,S73,4,$33,3,tF6,2,£BD,3,$e7,3,0S,3,425,2,5£-T.2.£CIi 

920 DftTA 2, tA4,2, S7E|2^$5a,2 ,t3S,2 ,$16,1,$FA;1|$DD, 1, $C2| 1 ,£fl9 

930 DATA l,$gi,l,E7A,X,£6^,l,£bl.l.SiE,l,32D,l,£lB,l-3UB.U,£FC 
1000 DftTA 13, 2, 13, 2, 20, 2, 20, a, 32 ,2, 22, 2, 20. 4. la.^.ie. 2 
1010 DATA 17,2.17,2,15,2,15,2,13,4,99,99 

When the above program \& executed, tones -from the middle C to ont-octave high C are pro- 
duced. Let's explain a way to perform a melody with Jfl-lOOU. In the aboue program, 
i tone is produced by d set of pieces of data for the pitch and the duration {including a 
rest riotej. Use the following kevboard to determine the pitch of the note. The numbers 
written on the keys indicate the sound data. Data lor a rest note is 0. The shortest note 
(Including a rest rotej is 1. (For example, when an eighth note is 1,a quarter note is 2 and 
a halt note is 4). 





1 


— 


G 

^ 
t 
t 

G 

4 

1 


* 


A 
3 


A 

1 


4 


B 
5 


C 
6 


C 


a 


B 


D 
( 




1 
10 


F 
t1 


F 
1 




G 

13 



1 


1 
* 


1& 


A 
1 


6 




c 

18 


C 
1 


It 
9 


D 
7D 


D 

2 


t 
1 


3? 


n 


F 
2 


* 
1 


G 
55 


G 
2 

1 


6 


A 
7f 



-S2- 



Assume thaT all notes V jX J haue the same pitch C. Note data is then given asO, 1,6, 1, 

6.1,6,1 ,6,2. 

Let's create a melody bv note data. Ail the data sentences must be stored as the DATA 

sentences starting from address 1 000. End up the melody with data 99. Read this data to 

terminate the program. 

The tempo of the melody may vary in accordance with changes of 180 of IBO *C irt JJne 

nomber 200 in the list descnijed above, increase the njmber to increase the tempo anti 

deciease the number to decrease it. 

The length of the song cannot be Mmited. 

The following program is created to repeat the first four measures of the song 'TwinKffl 

TwinkJe Little Star". In order to repeal the melody, the sentence with line number 140 

i« mnHifipH gj toMovjs. Let'c create oth#r congci 



100 DIM A(27.2] :POKE SCSOBrSEO 

110 RESrORE 910:FOR 1=1 TO 27:RERD A{T ,2) ,A(I ,1) -HEKT I 

130 FOR I-l -PO 10000 

130 REAE> B,C 

140 IF B=33 THEfJ PESTOF£ lUOOsGOTO 120 

150 IF B=0 THEM G0SL3 130:NEXT I 

160 POK£ £CS04,fl(B,ll iPOKE $C805,A(B,2| iGOSIjB 200 

170 NFXT T 

18Q POKE EcaOB^OiEKD 

190 POKE ECS0B,O:GO£UB 200:POKB £C60B,$EO : REP 

200 FOR W=l TO 120*CiM£;>:t WiRET 

yOO R£M FE4EQUENCY DATA 

910 DATA 4,$73,4,i33,3,$F6,3,SBD,3,fie7,3,$55,3,S25,2,SF7,2,$CD 
920 DSTA 2.SAd,2,3;7E,2,$5A.2,$^e,3,SXa,l,$?A.l.ir^D,lrSc2,l,M9 

930 DATA L,¥91,l,$7fl,l,t&5,l.il51,l,£3E,I,it2D,l,$lB,L.E0B,0.$FC 
lOOO nATfl 13,2,13,2,20,2,20,2,22.2,22,2,20,4,13,2,13,2 
1010 DATA 17,2,17,2,15,2,15,2,13,4,99,99 



-53- 



[Appendix) ASCII Code Table 



ASCII code 


Char- 


[ AKI 


'lebKfl 


Cl^r- 
acier 

4 


ACSII coda 


Chan 

aclar 


ASCII cods 


Char- 

scter 


ASCII tadfr 


Cher- 

Ktir 


lObM 


1Gba» 


'"" JlObw 


10 ban 


lebflw 


10 baa |l 6 bdES 


lObav 


l&basu 


ooo 


00 


lo52 


34 


1 C4 


68 




1 5 6 1 Q C 1 C 


2D8 


CO 




001 


01 


l053 


35 


5 


1 05 


69 




1 57 


9D 


□ 


209 


D1 




00^ 


02 




054 


36 


Q 


106 


eA 




1 53 


9E 


E] 


210 


D2 




003 


03 




055 


37 


7 


107 


68 




1 59 


9F 





21 1 


D3 




004 


04 




055 


36 


8 


108 


6C 




160 


AO 




212 


D4 




005 


05 




057 


39 


9 


109 


60 




'161 


A1 




213 


D5 1 




006 


06 




053 


3A 


: 


1 10 


6E 




,162 


A2 




214 


D5 




007 


07 




050 


30 


', 


i 11 


6F 




163 


A3 




215 


D7 




O08 


OB 




060 


3C 


*; 


1 1 2 


70 




'l 64 


A4 


21 6 


D3 




0O9 


09 1 




061 


3D 


^ 


1 13 


7 1 




1 65 


A5 


21 7 


D9 




01 


OA 




062 


3E 


> 


1 14 


72 




166 


A6 




218 


DA 




01 1 


06 




063 


3F 


^ 


1 15 


73 




167 


A7 




219 


DB . 




012 


OC 




064 


^0 


% 


116 


74 




168 


A8 




220 


DC 




01 3 


OD 




0G& 


A 1 


A 


1 17 


7E 




1 60 


/vo 




2G 1 


DD 




01 4 


oe 




066 


42 


G 


1 IS 


76 




1 70 


AA 


1222 


DE 




015 


OF 




067 


43 


C 


1 19 


77 




1 71 


AB 




223 


DF 




016 


10 




06S 


ild 


D 


120 


75 




1 72 


AC 




224 


EO 





01 7 


1 1 




069 


^5 


E 


121 


79 




173 


AD 


|225 


El 


a 


018 


12 




070 


46 


F 


1 22 


7A 




1 74 


AE 




226 


E2 


OS 


019 


T3 , 




071 


47 


G 


1 23 


7B 




1 75 


AF 




227 


E3 


H 


020 


14 




072 


48 


H 


124 


7C 




176 


BO 




2^8 


E4 


B 


021 


15 




073 


49 


1 


125 


7D 




1 77 


B1 




229 


E5 


D 


022 


16 




074 


-^A 


J 


126 


7E 




1 78 


B2 




230 


E5 


m 


023 


1 7 




075 


dB 


K 


127 


7F 




1 73 


B3 




231 


E7 


B 


024 


13 




070 


4C 


L 


123 


eo 




180 


B4 




232 


E8 


n 


02 5 


19 




077 


4D 


M 


129 


ei 


* 


181 


35 




235 


E9 


ffl 


026 


1A 




078 


4E 


N 


130 


8? 


w 


182 


B6 




234 


EA 


■ 


027 


IB 




079 


^F 


O 


131 


83 


• 


183 


B7 




235 


EB 


B 


028 


1C 




oso 


50 


P 


■ 52 


S^ 


4 


1 84 


BS 




236 


EC 


Q 


O20 


10 




0S1 


51 


Q 


133 


85 


A 


1 B6 


BO 




237 


FO 


BB 


O30 


IE 




002 


52 


R 


134 


86 


•- 


166 


BA 




239 


EE 


a 


03 T 


1 F 




083 


53 


S 


135 


07 


A 


1 67 


BB 




239 


EF 


m 


032 


20 


(3P5 


084 


54 


T 


136 


86 


t 


188 


BC 




240 


FO 


Q 


03 3 


21 


T 


085 


55 


U 


137 


8S 


■4 


1 39 


BD 




241 


F1 


□ 


03 4 


22 


<■ 


OSS 


56 


V 


13S 


SA 


1 


1 QO 


BE 




242 


F2 


D 


035 


23 


It 


087 


57 


w 


139 


SB 


© 


1 91 


BF 




243 


F3 


fa] 


036 


24 


$ 


088 


58 


X 


140 


BC 


■ 


192 


CO 




244 


F4 


V 


03 7 


2& 


% 


089 


59 


Y 


141 


BO 


El 


193 


I-. ' 




24b 


f-5 


m 


038 


26 


a 


090 


5A 


2 


142 


8E 


■ 


194 


C2 




246 


F6 


a 


039 


27 


» 0Q1 


5B 


( 


143 


SF 


3 


1 Q5 


C3 




247 


F7 


□ 


O4 


28 


< 


002 


5C 


V 


144 


90 


[a 


1 06 


C4 




248 


FS 


■ D 


04 T 


29 


> 


093 


5D 


3 


1 45 


91 


D 


197 


C5 




249 


F9 


' n 


04 Z 


2A 


t 


094 


5e 


■-- 


1 46 


9Z 


c 


198' 


ce 




250 


FA 


' 3 


04 3 


2B 


+ 


095 


5F 


— 


147 


93 


y 


190 


07 




251 


FB 


1 n 


04 4 


2C 


t 


096 


60 




143 


94 


H 


200 


CB 




252 


FC 


• 


04 5 


2D 


- 


09 7 


61 




149 


95 


H 


201 


C9 




2 53 


FD 


EJ 


045 


2E 


- 


099 


62 




150 


96 


a 


202 


CA 




254 


FE 


n 


047 


2F 


■' 099 


63 




151 


97 


a 


203 


ce 




255 


FF 


H 


04 8 


30 





100 


64 




152 


96 


s 


204 


cc 










04 9 


31 


1 


101 


65 




153 


QQ 


B 


205 


CD 










05 D 


^2 


2 


102 


66 




154 


QA 


n 


?0R 


CE 










Obi 


33 


3 


103 


67 




' bb 


oe , 


^ 


20 7 


CF 











-54- 



(Appendix) Design Chart 



Location design Chan (TV screen) 





<i 


1 


-) 


\ 


i 


5 


6 


7 


e 


9 10 


1 


2 


3 


& 


15 


6 


' 


B 


9 3tt 


1 


2 


3 


J 


» 


6 


7 


B 


a 


3ilVi 


D 














"1 








1 












"^ 
















^ 










1 


1 
























1 












] 




















1 


1 












~l 




























' 






















, 


3 




















j 






J 




































I 










' 










1 


1 


1 






1 








i , 
























^ 






















J 








1 










_| 










_i 












s 


















_i 




1 ' ' 






J_ 




—1 






1 




















7 












1 










1 






1 1 


^ 


























Q 












~^ 


"■ 












































9 
























1 


































1 
p 




ID 






















1 1 , 






1 








~ 






~ 




"■ 








1 






















J 




































3 






















J 




r 






, 










~ 










J 






1 


1 


J 






















^ 






































4 






















~^ 


1 


n 






1 










_i 
























15 






1 


_l 
















, 1 






n 










n 
1 














~i 










& 






In 


















1 






































7 


— 
























n 






























1 








3 


_j 




























































9 




1 , 




1 


















' 1 


























_l 










3 




1 


ii 












































— 1 


^ 


i 1 


1 






T ' 

1 




























L 


















_i 










? 






1 


















n 








































?1 






I 


I 


I 


_, 


, 


I 


I 


1 


z 


z 


_J 


B 





^^ 


^^^ 





-r-r 


,—, 




. 


. 


■^ 


_. 


^— 


^— 


^— 


^ 



Ll£«r's definition character 



^ddrSH 


7 


a 


5 


i 


3 


? 


i 





PaiKrr 


( J^i 


1 
1 




p 


_i 


~ 








i J 


1 ' 1 ' 


1 






1 










^1 ) 


( J ^ 


















i ) 


I ) ll 


n 




i_ 












T J 


i i a 
















1 


< J 


< J^l 


1 














\ 


J- \ 


< J fl 




1 










~ 




i i 


1 J 7 




— 1 
J 






J 






L 


'. J 



n cw* 



AOJreu 7 e B J 3 2 1 PallBni coda 



L ■ 










1 






( J 1 






I 


i_ 










t J ? 






T 


r^" 










{ J 3 








■J 










1 J 4 










1^ 










1 ) 5 




















C > 5 




















1. ^ 7 





















Addrflii 
-' U 
J 1 

:2 

J 4 

■i 5 

^ 6 

1 7 



7 


6 


5 


d 


3 


1 
2 


1 





1 












"1 
















_L 
















X 














1 
















1-^ 


1 
















1 

, h _ 
















r 
1 


r 
















1 







fltltm CDiJe 




-5B- 



Matsjshita Eleclric Trading Co., Ltd. 

Trade Center P.O.Box IS Tokyo 105